Common conditions and how to prevent vision loss



The eyes work by allowing light to pass through the pupil to reach the retina, a thin layer of tissue at the back of the eyeball.

The iris is a ring of colored tissue around the pupil that control how a lot of light enters the eye.

The lens is the clear part of the inside of the eye that helps the cornea focus incoming light on the retina. The retina contains light-sensitive receptor cells that convert light into electrical signals.

These signals travel to the brain through the optic nerve, a thick bundle of nerve fibers located behind the eye. The brain processes these electrical signals and converts them into visual images.

Eye disorders and diseases can affect any part of this process to cause vision problems. Some illnesses can lead to blindness if left untreated.

Eye disorders and diseases cause a range of symptoms that can affect vision. Some common eye symptoms can understand:

  • blurred or cloudy vision
  • double vision
  • see reflections or a ring around the lights
  • see floating spots
  • light sensitivity
  • headache
  • sore or tired eyes
  • difficulty concentrating on a book or computer
  • lazy eye

Some symptoms will appear in childhood and others later in life. These symptoms may worsen over time and require medical treatment.

Many different conditions that can affect the eyes and vision, including:

Refractive errors

More 150 million people in the United States have a refractive error, and they are the most common vision problem.

Refractive errors include:

  • Myopia or myopia: This is where distant objects appear blurry.
  • Hyperopia or hyperopia: This makes nearby objects blurry.
  • Astigmatism: Due to an abnormal curvature of the cornea, distant and near objects may appear blurry.
  • Presbyopia: This is a natural and gradual loss of the ability to focus on nearby objects, usually after 40 years.

These conditions result from structural problems in the eye that prevent light from focusing properly on the retina. For example, presbyopia This is when the lens becomes stiffer with age and cannot focus light on the retina as well.

Refractive errors are generally treatable with corrective glasses or contact lenses. Some people may be eligible for surgery to change the shape of the eye. For example, laser eye surgery can fix corneal issues to help focus light properly.

Macular degeneration

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) refers to a loss of central vision that occurs with age. The problem arises when the macula, which is the central area of ​​the retina, is damaged. AMD only affects central vision without affecting peripheral areas.

The condition can be wet or dry. Wet AMD occurs when the growth of blood vessels under the macular area causes rapid loss of central vision, and dry AMD occurs when the macular thins due to aging and causes progressive loss of central vision.

There are currently no cure for age-related dry macular degeneration. However, doctors can treat wet cases with drug injections into the eye, laser treatment, or a combination of the two.


Cataracts are the primary cause Decreased Vision in the United States Cataracts cause a cloudy area in the lens that can blur vision. They get worse with age and can eventually lead to vision loss without treatment.

People can manage cataracts with new glasses or lenses, or make changes at home and at work, such as brighter lights. However, doctors may suggest surgery to replace the clouded lens with an implant and restore vision in more severe cases.

Diabetic retinopathy

Diabetes can damage blood vessels over time, including in the retina. The damage can cause blood and other fluids to leak, leading to swelling of the retina. The condition may not cause any symptoms at first. However, it can evolve to cause dark, floating spots or streaks and distort vision. It can also lead to more serious complications, such as detachment of the retina from the back of the eye.

Doctors may suggest laser treatment or injections to treat the condition. In severe cases, eye surgery may be necessary.


Glaucoma refers to a group of eye diseases that damage the optic nerve and cause vision problems and blindness. He is usually the result fluid that collects in the eye and puts pressure on the optic nerve.

Open-angle glaucoma is the The most common type of glaucoma in the United States. This is where fluid fails to drain properly from the eye. It may not cause any symptoms at first, but it can lead to vision loss over time. It often starts with peripheral vision and gets closer.

Doctors may suggest eye drops or laser treatment to reduce pressure on the eye. Surgery can also help drain fluid from the eye.


Amblyopia, also called lazy eye, mainly affects infants and children. The disease causes vision problems in one eye when the brain cannot process its vision properly. There are many possible causes of amblyopia, such as a refractive error or cataract. If caught early, a person can receive treatment to prevent amblyopia.

Treatment will usually involve wearing an eye patch over the dominant eye or using fuzzy eye drops. This will help the brain process the vision of the weaker eye and eventually balance the problem.

Other treatments may be helpful when there is a specific cause, such as glasses to correct a refractive error or surgery for a cataract.


Strabismus is where a lack of coordination between the eyes can cause imbalance, usually in infants. The condition can lead to amblyopia without treatment. Doctors may recommend glasses, contact lenses, medication, or surgery to help coordinate the eyes.



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